Renewable energies

Renewable energies


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Renewable energies, that is to say all those forms of energy that are renewed and that do not run out in "human" times and whose use does not affect the natural resources of the planet, according to what is defined by law 10/91 are "the sun, wind, hydraulic energy, geothermal resources, tides, wave motion and the transformation of organic and inorganic waste or plant products. "These will therefore be the topics covered in this section for greater knowledge and in-depth study of issues that should now be within everyone's reach and that they are our future and should also be our present, for a sustainable development of our civilization.

The column is also created thanks to the collaboration of Dr. Rossella Stocco, researcher in the environmental field who you can contact at 3478718982 or by sending an email to [email protected].

For suggestions, advice, opinions, write to us at [email protected]

Articles on renewable energy


Renewable energies

Renewable energies are ways to generate energy from unlimited natural resources. These resources are available indefinitely or replenish faster than the rate at which they are consumed.
Generally speaking of renewable energies rather than fossil fuels.

Renewable energies are booming, because innovation reduces costs and starts thinking about a future of clean energy. US solar and wind power generation is breaking records and being integrated into the national electricity grid. This means that renewables are increasingly replacing "dirty" fossil fuels in the energy sector, offering the advantage of reducing carbon emissions and other types of pollution. While renewable energy is often thought of as a new technology, harnessing the power of nature has long been used for heating, transportation, lighting and more.

The expansion of renewable energy is also happening on large and small scales, from solar panels on the roof of houses that can sell energy to the grid to giant wind farms. Some entire rural communities also rely on renewable energy for heating and lighting.
Non-renewable energy sources are also typically found in specific parts of the world, making them more abundant in some nations than others. On the contrary, every country has access to the sun and the wind. Prioritizing non-renewable energy can also improve national security by reducing a country's dependence on exports from fossil-fuel-rich nations.
Many non-renewable energy sources can endanger the environment or human health. For example, oil drilling could cause earthquakes and water pollution, and coal-fired power plants foul the air. Finally, all of these activities contribute to global warming.


Geothermal energy exploits the natural heat of the Earth, generated by elements such as potassium, thorium and uranium, present in the deepest layers of the earth's crust. Geothermal power plants have been created to exploit geothermal heat. The flow of steam from the subsoil produces such a force as to make a turbine move, the mechanical energy of the turbine is finally transformed into electricity by means of an alternator.

Another one renewable energy source ГЁ l†™ hydroelectric power, which is produced by the motions of water. Waves, tides, natural and artificial waterfalls, rivers and other natural paths produce kinetic energy which is then transformed into electricity with the help of turbines. a is produced through hydroelectric power plants, which are generally built in the mountains near streams and where it is easier to exploit the union between gravity and kinetic energy.


Renewable energies: three-digit boom on the markets, the trend will continue for UBP

Titta Ferraro

One of the major success stories in the stock market over the past year is that of renewable energy. As Mathieu Nègre, Portfolio Manager Emerging Market Impact Equities recalls, Union Bancaire Privée (UBP), the main industry benchmark, the index S&P Global Clean Energy, grew over 140% in dollar terms last year. Last year was crucial for the renewables industry which marked the beginning of a new cycle, as well as a reassessment of the ways in which we produce energy.

Renewable energies: why it is so successful

The reasons for this success are many. First of all, the fact that, in stark contrast to all other fuels, renewable energy used for electricity generation should have grown by nearly 7% in 2020, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition, the cost ofsolar and wind energy, already steadily declining in recent years, has dropped further, making them more competitive than fossil fuels.

These developments have been supported by government policies, such as the EU recovery plan which has a strong focus on green investments. Furthermore, with the Green Deal, the EU has set itself the ambitious goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050, which will require a major shift towards renewable energy to become a reality. The Deal's proposals include reducing carbon emissions by 55% compared to 1990 between now and the end of the decade.

Particularly significant can be the ongoing developments in China, by far the world's largest producer of carbon dioxide, responsible for 27% of global emissions. Last but not least is President Biden who brought the United States back into the Paris Agreement and is expected to translate climate policy into federal government action. Under the new administration, according to the expert, investments in green energy could reach two trillion dollars, with the aim of obtaining a zero-carbon energy sector by 2035, decarbonising the transport industry through new fuel emissions standards and developing emerging technologies, such as green hydrogen power, which is expected to receive approximately $ 400 billion in federal funding.

The implications for some companies

In light of these developments, concludes the UBP expert, it is not surprising that some leading names in the renewable energy sector, such as the thirty companies represented in the S&P Global Clean Energy index, have seen their share prices substantially appreciate over the past twelve months. . For example, for a number of renewable energy stocks, revenues are estimated to have grown by 29% in 2020 and are projected to rise by a further 24% in 2021. On top of that, an increase in margins can be expected. profit and better long-term prospects.

"Investors with long memories can remember the debacle of the previous solar energy cycle that ended in a series of failures, followed by seemingly endless years of low profitability for the entire sector - recalls Nègre -. Compared to that experience, some things have fundamentally changed for the better, most notably the fact that climate policy is high on the political agenda in most of the developed world, which means that investments in renewable energy are set to increase. Furthermore, the renewables industry has consolidated globally, which has allowed current players in the sector to rely on a more solid financial base than in previous years. On the other hand, what hasn't changed is the volatile nature of the investment cycles and the struggle to protect profit margins over time, given the relatively low barriers to entry into the renewables sector. "

The UBP expert believes that 2020 was a pivotal year for the renewables industry which marked lbeginning of a new cycle, as well as a re-evaluation of the ways in which we produce energy. This development fits in with global efforts to decarbonise the energy system that are already underway. "In other words, the shift to renewables has acquired a dynamic that goes beyond the technological and regulatory aspects that have been in the minds of investors in the past."


Renewables 2020

Analysis and forecast to 2025

Renewables 2020
  • Overview
    • Abstract
    • Executive summary
  • Covid-19 and the resilience of renewables
    • The world after strict lockdowns
    • January to June renewable electricity capacity additions
    • Pre-crisis policies will have at least as much impact as Covid-19 on the future of renewable technologies
    • Renewable industry equity performance
    • Impact of Covid-19 crisis on renewable electricity penetration and prices
    • Renewable energy in heat and transport is less resilient
  • Renewable electricity
    • Forecast summary
  • Solar PV
    • Forecast overview
    • China
    • United States
    • India
    • Japan
    • ASEAN
    • Australia
    • Europe
    • Germany
    • Spain
    • The Netherlands
    • France
    • Italy
    • Poland
    • Belgium
    • Brazil
    • Mexico
    • Chile, Argentina and Colombia
    • Middle East and North Africa
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Wind
    • Forecast overview
    • China
    • United States
    • India
    • Japan
    • ASEAN
    • Australia
    • Europe
    • Germany
    • Spain
    • France
    • The Netherlands
    • Sweden
    • Poland
    • Italy
    • Denmark
    • Brazil
    • Mexico
    • Chile, Argentina and Colombia
    • Middle East and North Africa
    • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Hydropower, bioenergy, CSP and geothermal
    • Hydropower
    • Biomass electricity
    • CSP
    • Geothermal
  • Transport biofuels
    • Forecast summary
    • Ethanol markets
    • Biodiesel and HVO markets
  • Renewable heat
    • Covid-19 impact on global heat demand
    • Renewable heat demand in 2020-22
    • Renewable heat prospects towards 2025
    • Renewable heat in stimulus packages
  • Key trends to watch
    • Where are we at with clean energy stimulus?
    • Are wind and PV expansion emerging beyond common policy schemes?
    • Will large oil and gas producers become major renewable electricity investors?
    • Are system operators curtailing too much wind and solar electricity?
    • Are governments missing an opportunity to accelerate sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) deployment?
    • Is it “full steam ahead” for renewable shipping fuels?
  • References

Cite report

IEA (2020), Renewables 2020, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/renewables-2020

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In this report

In May 2020, the IEA market update on renewable energy provided an analysis that looked at the impact of Covid-19 on renewable energy deployment in 2020 and 2021. This early assessment showed that the Covid-19 crisis is hurting - but not halting - global renewable energy growth. Half a year later, the pandemic continues to affect the global economy and daily life. However, renewable markets, especially electricity-generating technologies, have already shown their resilience to the crisis. Renewables 2020 provides detailed analysis and forecasts through 2025 of the impact of Covid-19 on renewables in the electricity heat and transport sectors.

  • Overview
  • Covid-19 and the resilience of renewables
  • Renewable electricity
  • Solar PV
  • Wind
  • Hydropower, bioenergy, CSP and geothermal
  • Transport biofuels
  • Renewable heat
  • Key trends to watch
  • References
  • Downloads (5)

For the first time, Renewables 2020 includes a dynamic data dashboard enabling users to explore historical data and forecasts for all sectors and technologies. You can find links to jump directly to the Renewables 2020 Data Explorer throughout this report. The associated Renewables 2020 dataset gives full access to all of the data available in this dashboard, plus additional premium data for all sectors and technologies, including additional historical years.

Explore historical data and forecasts for all renewables sectors and technologies

Executive summary

In sharp contrast to all other fuels, renewables used for generating electricity will grow by almost 7% in 2020. Global energy demand is set to decline 5% - but long-term contracts, priority access to the grid and continuous installation of new plants are all underpinning strong growth in renewable electricity. This more than compensates for declines in bioenergy for industry and biofuels for transport - mostly the result of lower economic activity. The net result is an overall increase of 1% in renewable energy demand in 2020.

Renewables' resilience is driven by the electricity sector

Change in energy demand and renewables output in electricity, heat and transport, 2019 to 2020

Despite looming economic uncertainties, investor appetite for renewables remains strong. From January to October 2020, auctioned renewable capacity was 15% higher than for the same period last year, a new record. At the same time, the shares of publicly listed renewable equipment manufacturers and project developers have been outperforming most major stock market indices and the overall energy sector. This is thanks to expectations of healthy business growth and finances over the medium term. In October 2020, shares of solar companies worldwide had more than doubled in value from December 2019.

Driven by China and the United States, net installed renewable capacity will grow by nearly 4% globally in 2020, reaching almost 200 GW. Higher additions of wind and hydropower are taking global renewable capacity additions to a new record this year, accounting for almost 90% of the increase in total power capacity worldwide. Solar PV growth is expected to remain stable as a faster expansion of utility-scale projects compensates for the decline in rooftop additions resulting from individuals and companies reprioritising investments. Wind and solar PV additions are set to jump by 30% in both the People's Republic of China ("China") and the United States as developers rush to complete projects before changes in policy take effect.

The renewables industry has adapted quickly to the challenges of the Covid crisis. We have revised the IEA forecast for global renewable capacity additions in 2020 upwards by 18% from our previous update in May. Supply chain disruptions and construction delays slowed the progress of renewable energy projects in the first six months of 2020. However, construction of plants and manufacturing activity ramped up again quickly, and logistical challenges have been mostly resolved with the easing of cross-border restrictions since mid-May. Our new database for monthly capacity additions shows that they have exceeded previous expectations through September, pointing to a faster recovery in Europe, the United States and China.

Renewable power additions defy Covid to set new record

Renewable capacity additions by country / region 2019-2021

Renewable capacity additions are on track for a record expansion of nearly 10% in 2021. Two factors should drive the acceleration, leading to the fastest growth since 2015. First, the commissioning of delayed projects in markets where construction and supply chains were disrupted. Prompt government measures in key markets - the United States, India and some European countries - have authorized developers to complete projects several months after policy or auction deadlines that originally fell at the end of 2020. Second, growth is set to continue in 2021 in some markets - such as the United States, the Middle East and Latin America - where the pre-Covid project pipeline was robust thanks to continued cost declines and uninterrupted policy support.

India is expected to be the largest contributor to the renewables upswing in 2021, with the country's annual additions almost doubling from 2020. A large number of auctioned wind and solar PV projects are expected to become operational following delays due not only to Covid-19 but also to contract negotiations and land acquisition challenges.

In the European Union, capacity additions are forecast to jump in 2021. This is mainly the result of previously auctioned utility-scale solar PV and wind projects in France and Germany coming online. Growth is supported by member states' policies to meet the bloc's 2030 renewable energy target and by the EU recovery fund providing low-cost financing and grants. In the Middle East and North Africa region and Latin America, renewable energy additions recover in 2021, led by the commissioning of projects awarded previously in competitive auctions.

Europe and India will lead a renewables surge in 2021

Renewables are resilient to the Covid-19 crisis but not to policy uncertainties. The expiry of incentives in key markets and the resulting policy uncertainties lead to a small decline in renewables capacity additions in 2022 in our main forecast. In China, onshore wind and solar PV subsidies expire this year, while offshore wind support ends in 2021. The policy framework for 2021-25 will be announced at the end of next year, leaving uncertainty over the pace of renewables expansion in China in 2022 and beyond. Renewable additions are also set to be held back in 2022 by the expiry of production tax credits for onshore wind in the United States, the ongoing financial struggles of distribution companies in India, and delayed auctions in Latin America. In particular, onshore wind additions are expected to decline by 15% globally, while offshore wind expansion continues to accelerate around the world.

If countries address policy uncertainties, as in our Accelerated Case, global solar PV and wind additions could each increase by a further 25% in 2022. This would push renewable capacity additions to a record 271 GW. China alone would account for 30% of the increase. The solar PV annual market could reach about 150 GW - an increase of almost 40% in just three years. In the United States, if additional policies for clean electricity are implemented, solar PV and wind may see much more rapid deployment, contributing to a faster decarbonisation of the US power sector.


Video: Renewable Energy 101


Comments:

  1. Quauhtli

    Thanks for the help on this question.

  2. Pascual

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  3. Worcester

    I would add something else, of course, but in fact, almost everything is said.

  4. Tygoshicage

    I doubt it.



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