Kumanika in the pantry of the sun

Kumanika in the pantry of the sun


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Kumanika (Rubus nessensis) in the pantry of the sun

Kumanika (Rubus nessensis) is a subshrub of the pink family. In terms of leaves, shape and structure of fruits, this plant resembles a raspberry. But these are not raspberries. Raspberries do not have such dark red, almost black berries.

But if the fruits are black, and even with a bluish bloom, then it's blackberries! - the experienced readers will say. Yes, blackberries, ozhina, hedgehogs or azhina (they have such names in various regions of Russia) - there is such a climbing shrub from the same Rosaceae family as raspberries. Certain types of blackberry have adapted in a peculiar way to continue their genus. They do not have root shoots replacing obsolete stems the next year. But flexible and long shoots with thorns with a sharp pointed end gradually tilt to the ground and easily take root there. The widespread blackberry species have sprouts.

However, the plant in question is not a blackberry. Just look at the shoots: they are erect and unable to take root. But then what is it? Judging by all the signs, we met the "relatives" of the blackberry - kumanik... She also has other names - kumaniha, bear. Sometimes it is not distinguished at all from a blackberry, although the color of the kumanik fruit is still rather dark red than violet-blue, like that of a blackberry.

Kumanika blooms with large white flowers, they are larger than those of raspberries. Leaves are dense and tenacious, beautiful dark green. When you walk next to a bush, the leaves cling to your clothes.

Kumanik tastes similar to blackberries. It has sweet and sour fruits, very juicy, reminiscent of raspberries, without bloom. The fruits are quite edible fresh... They make jam, jam, cook juices, marmalade, jelly, berries are used in confectionery and dried. Dried the vitamins and other useful substances contained in them are well preserved. This berry is widely known in Europe. It grows in bushes, at the edges of forests. In the Leningrad region it also grows well. There is a lot of it in the forest in Yucca. Usually it is found on low hills, in places slightly swampy. I must admit that few people know this berry, which should only be regretted.

There are others little known fruit and berry cropsthat can be grown on your site.

Tamara Barkhatova


Examples of projects with a house in the photo

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Gone are the days when garden plots were used primarily for growing crops. Now their owners want to relax there with their souls, and therefore much attention is paid to the arrangement. Even on a small plot, only 5 acres, there is a place to roam for those who try themselves in landscape design.

A plot of five acres is good because it is easy to care for it. But planning for such a small area often causes problems.

Layout of a small plot

The preparatory stage will take a lot of time. You will need to think about what exactly you want to see on the site. Will there be only a small house surrounded by greenery and neat paths with places to rest? Or the landscape design of a plot of 5 acres may also imply a complex of buildings, including a bathhouse, and household places. Perhaps a playground or playground is needed.

The development phase of the site project begins with the identification of locations for future buildings

When designing, pay attention to all the features of the relief: reservoirs, depressions, hills. Some of them will be interesting to beat, others will have to be redone. More often - the second, given that the site is small.

Once you have decided on a list of what you need, you can start planning every centimeter. The main rule is to use the space as efficiently as possible, while not overloading it.

The plot is divided into functional areas connected by garden paths

If this is your first project, and you doubt how it will be better, you can use ready-made ideas based on the shape of the site:

  1. On an oval-elongated territory, clear color zoning looks good: cold shades - along the long sides of the site, warm - along the short ones. Rest and work areas are separated by hedges, along which plants climb.
  2. An L-shaped plot can be arranged as follows: make a recreation area in the "branch", in front of it, at the intersection of lines - a house and a vegetable garden. Most of the letter "g" will be occupied by beautiful plants, and a few outbuildings will be located at the very bottom.
  3. The layout on a plot of standard, rectangular shape is most convenient. In one corner there are outbuildings, in the other - a house, between them - a vegetable garden. The rest of the space is designed for the soul.

Examples of planning solutions:

Vertical layout

There are several techniques to help visually expand the space. Among them - the vertical layout, which distracts attention from the small size of the site and draws the eye to accents. In practice, it might look like this:

  • In the corners of the site, multi-tiered flower beds are created of bricks with a base covered with rubble, rock gardens.
  • Along the perimeter, if there are base walls, you can fix flower pots and other containers with earth.
  • On the site itself, there are more shelving units, where each shelf is a bed, flower beds based on old dressers and pedestals (with flowers in each box). An economical option is a pile of car tires, in which tall flower beds are created.
  • Hanging gardens can play not only a decorative role, but also be used as beds. For example, you can grow greens and various types of salad in a pots.
  • The house is located clearly opposite the entrance to the site, and first of all, the main vertical route from the gate in the fence to the doors to the house is laid out.

The main path on the site is from the gate to the house, it is from it that the improvement of the territory begins

Garden paths should be combined with the rest of the landscape design

Look for vertical layouts for inspiration to pick up off-the-shelf solutions or take on other people's ideas to come up with your own.

The most modern vertical gardening technique is a living wall. It does not take up much space, which makes it popular for small areas

To create phytowalls, unpretentious plants are chosen that require minimal maintenance.

Ergonomic layout of outbuildings

When the site is limited to 5 acres, it is better to make the outbuildings as less noticeable as possible and, if possible, be located in the remote corners of the garden. In addition, it is better to decorate them with "creeping" plants so that they do not visually clutter up the space.

In order to save space, you can abandon a separate utility block in favor of a small extension to the house

Outbuildings can protect delicate plants from cold winds, so the best location is on the north side.

At the same time, do not forget about the legislative side of the issue: observe the norms of indentation from the objects of neighboring sites, if you do not want all the fruits of your efforts to be once demolished.

Standards of indentation from the boundaries of the land plot

Having solved the issue with buildings, pay sufficient attention to lighting. This is not only a matter of comfort, but also of safety. Firstly, you yourself will be able to move around the site without risking twisting your leg, tripping over some part of the garden composition. Secondly, uninvited guests are unlikely to want to visit a well-lit area.

Well-placed lamps can dramatically change the look of the garden at night and in the evening

LED lamps made of polycarbonate, located on the lawn or under tall trees, look original

At the very least, you need to light up your porch, garage and garden paths. Second, tackle the fence. And the distant edges of the site can be left for later, if there are financial constraints.

Stylish solutions for a small area

In order for the design of the territory to look harmonious, style unity is necessary. Plus, a predefined general idea will help you choose plants and small decor for an already decorated area in the future.

It is necessary to choose such a design of the garden that it is pleasant to look at it

The most common today are three styles of design.

Oriental flavor

Most often, the owners of small plots turn to the experience of the Japanese: they know a lot about the improvement of small areas. That there are only world-famous rock gardens that inspire the beauty of minimalism.

Oriental style allows you to make the most of a small space

Here are some other design ideas you can borrow from a typical Japanese garden:

  • miniature trees that look exactly like real trees, but much smaller
  • low shrubs, mosses
  • light rail fences
  • waterfalls.

If buildings are planned, a good solution would be to design a gazebo in the form of a pagoda - this will emphasize the chosen style.

A garden made of stones, created in Japanese motives, is characterized by conciseness and unpretentious maintenance.

There is not a single superfluous detail in the oriental style. If you plant trees, then they should be cherry, plum, so that they decorate the garden for as long as possible. In the summer they will be useful for their fruits, and in the spring they will turn the garden almost into a Japanese one, with “sakura”.

Palace style

Details of this style are quite possible to fit into a small area, but it will be more difficult. Here you have to weigh the number of elements, their size, so that everything looks neat.

The basis of the garden in the palace style is symmetrical planting of shrubs for a haircut

  • neat shrubs, trimmed at the same height
  • well-groomed flower beds or fresh lawn
  • plants placed in graceful flowerpots
  • beautiful benches
  • forged decorated arches.

Think in advance if you are ready for the restrictions imposed by the palace style. No bells and daisies are allowed here! Only spray roses and other plants for an elegant look.

In a secluded corner of such a garden, you can put a stone bench in the spirit of past centuries

In theory, this is an expensive and pompous style, so look at the ideas for palace-style plots and choose what is applicable on your 5 acres. Including, taking into account the budget. For example, a house decorated with columns, stone benches will look expensive and interesting, but several stone vases with flowers are less expensive.

Garden landscape

In contrast to the previous style, this one allows almost all familiar and simple landscapes, a riot of colors and colors.

The popularity of the landscape style is due to the desire of the land owners to create a corner of untouched nature around them.

If you dream of admiring water bodies, a landscape style is simply created for you. The center of the composition will be a pond, and in addition, you can decorate it with a waterfall and a bridge. An alpine slide is also installed nearby, the coast is formed with large stones, and plants are planted, which do not care about high humidity.

A small artificial reservoir will decorate the site and provide an opportunity to enjoy a good rest on its shore

If you want such a garden to attract the eye with its beauty all year round, you need to choose plants that bloom at different times.

In winter in Russia it is, of course, difficult to do. But from early spring to late autumn - it is quite possible. If you live in northern cities, your way out is mobile flower beds. Home-grown potted flowers are simply transferred to the garden. At the same time, additional opportunities appear for experiments with plant placement and changing the usual composition.

For those who want to see their garden attractive in winter, we can recommend conifers - prickly spruce, western thuja or Cossack juniper

But the number of trees when planning a plot of 5 acres is better to reduce, otherwise they will greatly shade the site. If you can't do without them, group them with shrubs around the perimeter: gooseberries, currants. And choose not too large, spreading trees: better low-growing apple trees, dwarf firs, ornamental thuja.

Beautiful designs

Immediately accept the thought that it is impossible to plant all the plants that you like on a plot of 5 acres. Leave in the project only those without which you absolutely cannot imagine your own garden.

In a small area, small forms look beneficial, for example, a vintage gate in a stone wall, behind which, perhaps, there is no move, but such a composition looks very stylish

This garden amazes with the abundance of flowering plants, for small specimens there was a place for higher

There are many options for planting flower beds, but in a small area, options are preferred when different types of plants grow close to each other. You can also arrange a rockery, where there will be stones next to the flowers.

To make the flower bed look elegant all season, you need to select plants that bloom at different times.

Conclusion

Even if you have a plot of 5 acres, landscape design is available for you. Experiment in the style of your choice, keeping the bare minimum. Zoning the garden area in accordance with the recommendations so that you are comfortable and pleasant to be on it.

Video: Choosing unpretentious plants for a garden plot


Summary of the lesson in the preparatory group "Tasty vitamins and healthy foods"

Natalia Apoka
Summary of the lesson in the preparatory group "Tasty vitamins and healthy foods"

VITAMINS AND HEALTHY PRODUCTS.

TECHNOLOGY: health-preserving, communicative, personality-oriented, play, information and communication, research.

-to achieve the assimilation of knowledge about the concept «vitamins» and about useful productsin which they are contained

-lead children to the conclusion about the need vitamins in the human body.

- to ensure the development of sensory abilities: taste, hearing, coordination, fine motor skills, touch.

- to induce the desire to eat healthy foods

-to lead children to the conclusion that it is very important to take care of their own health.

Educator: Natalya Aleksandrovna Apoka

Educator: Guys! Today, not all children have come to kindergarten, Vanya, Sveta and Petit are gone. And you do not know what happened to them, why are they not there?

Educator: Why does a person get sick?

Educator: What time of year is it?

Educator: What changes in nature occur in autumn?

Children: It got colder, it often rains, the leaves change color and fall off, people harvest vegetables and fruits.

Educator: Right, let us harvest tomatoes and cucumbers. Let's do an exercise for the cheeks "Tomato" (puffing out the cheeks) and "Cucumber" (cheeks in) 3-5 times. What vegetables and fruits do you like the most?

Children: Carrot, cucumber, apple ...

Educator: Fruits and vegetables not only delicious, but also useful... Now I will tell you one very important secret. It turns out that in some healthy vitamins live in products. Vitamins - these are very small substances, so small that there are many times less grains of sugar, so we cannot see them. But the most important thing is that in vitamins contains strength and health for the body. If there is little food vitamins a person is sick, grows poorly, becomes weak, sad. Show what kind of face you will have if you get sick (facial expressions of children)... Since you have vitamins have their own names... Let's get to know them better (showing vitamins A, B, C, D on screen)... Have vitamins have their own houseswhere they live. And also vitamins love to play hide and seek.So today they hid from you, and we will have to find them. Guess the riddle and find out which vegetable contains a lot vitamin A "BUT":

The red maiden was born in a dungeon

Deftly threw the scythe out the window.

Educator: Right, carrot, and what is it?

Children: Orange, delicious, long, juicy, crispy, strong.

Educator: And what is made of it?

Children: Juice, salad, add to soup ...

Educator: Well done! And remember the one who eats vitamin rich foods "BUT" - grows quickly and sees well. Let's do eye gymnastics so that our eyes can rest.

The teacher performs eye gymnastics with the children.

Educator: Now let's play games "Attentive eyes"... I will lay out vegetables and fruits, which also contain vitamin "BUT"... You close your eyes, and at this time I will change places or hide one of them. Look carefully with your eyes and tell me what has changed. Let's see who eats a lot vitamin A "BUT", whose eyes see well.

A game "Attentive eyes" (tomato, carrot, red apple, peach, apricot, pumpkin).

Educator: Listen to the poem about vitamin "BUT":

Educator: Guys, let's play one more game with you "Garden" (speech with movement):

We are a very friendly people, (Children stand in a circle).

We took a few shovels, (Digging the ground with imaginary shovels).

They took a rake, loosened it, (loosen the earth, make the garden bed imaginary

They broke a little bed here. rake).

We ask you not to distract us - (They threaten with a finger).

Everyone took a packet of seeds (Sow seeds in the garden).

Carefully rake in (Rake in, watered).

Here is a cheerful vegetable garden (They point to the garden with their hands).

What does not grow here!

Now, friend, don't yawn (Harvest in a basket).

Educator: Guys, now let's find the house in which they live group vitamins "AT",guess the riddle:

The green house is a bit small: narrow, long, smooth.

Round children are sitting side by side in the house

In the fall, trouble came - the smooth house cracked.

All round guys galloped up.

Educator: That's right, peas, and are peas a vegetable or a fruit?

Educator: Group vitamins "AT" found not only in vegetables and fruits. But also in others food, eg (show)in cereals: buckwheat, oatmeal, millet, and also in bread and beans.

Group vitamins "AT" are very important for the functioning of the heart and the whole body. Let's play a game "Identify by ear"... In these containers, I hid productscontaining vitamin "AT", you have to guess by ear what is this product... Let's see who eats these products and who has very good hearing.

A game "Identify by ear" (buckwheat, millet, oatmeal, peas, beans, semolina).

Educator: Now listen carefully to the poem about productscontaining vitamin "AT":

Eat oatmeal at breakfast

Black bread useful to us,

Educator: Now we will find "Houses"where they live group vitamins "WITH".Guess the riddle:

Walked along the garden bed along the fence, the brave army was on patrol,

Hundreds of hands hold peaks, bitter grows ...

Educator: Correctly contained in onions group vitamins "WITH". Vitamin A "WITH" a lot in all vegetables and fruits. Well, most of all in lemon, orange, garlic, onion and sauerkraut (show)... In the fall, people make preparations for vegetables and fruits for the winter. Let us swami also pickle cabbage.

Finger game "We are chopping cabbage":

We chop the cabbage, Sharp movements with straight brushes up and down.

We are three carrots, The fingers of both hands are clenched into fists, the movement of fists towards ourselves and away from ourselves

We salt the cabbage, The movement of the fingers, imitating the sprinkling of salt from a pinch.

We are harvesting cabbage. Squeeze the fingers of both hands into fists.

Educator: Group vitamins "WITH" protect the body from various diseases and help fight colds.And there is even a saying about onions: "Onion - from seven ailments"... Let's play a game with you "Define on taste»... You will close your eyes in turn, and I will put one of the productscontaining vitamin "WITH"... You have to find out what kind of vegetable or fruit it is and name it.

A game "Define on taste» (lemon, orange, onion, garlic, sauerkraut).

Educator: Listen to a poem about fruits that contain many vitamin A "WITH":

Show how sour he is (facial expressions of children).

Educator: Next vitamin "D" hid in the rays of the sun (showing the picture on the screen)... When you walk in the fresh air, the rays of the sun give you vitamin "D"... Let us also imagine that we are walking on a sunny day (music sounds)... Let's imagine that it is summer and we lie down in the fresh air, close our eyes (relaxation).

Educator: We took a walk, and here we go "Wonderful bag"... Each of you approaches the bag and looks for Food, in which I will call him. And when you guess and name, remember which of vitamins it contains... To do this, there will be a hint (on the screen, pictures of letters from productsin which they are contained).

A game "Wonderful bag" (carrot, apple, peas, beans, lemon, orange, onion, garlic).

Educator: Well done, the number of applicants vitamins into our body depends on the season. What time of year do you think we receive most vitamins?

Children: There is a lot of sun in the summer. Vegetables and fruits are harvested in summer and autumn.

Educator: That's right, don't forget about vitamins, we must receive them with food every day. You need to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables to grow strong and healthy. And we will definitely tell the guys about this when they get better. So that they eat them and not get sick. So let's all eat together healthy orangeswhich one vitamin they contain and how it useful?

Children: Vitamin "WITH", protects against colds.

Educator: So what is important vitamins for humans?

Children: To be strong, healthy and not sick.

Educator: How many useful you learned about vitamins and healthand here are the oranges, but first let's go and wash our hands.

Nutrition of children in spring Proper nutrition ensures the normal growth and development of the child, increases the body's resistance to diseases, including infectious ones.


Among the people, celandine is called in different ways: pimple, adam's head, warthog, warthog, hairwort, gladler, slicker, glecopar, yellow spurge, field mustard, cleanliness, celandine, purse, puree, yellow milk, red milk, etc.

Judging by all its names, you can make a short description without looking into smart books. Podtynnik because it grows under the tyn, a fence made of hewn stakes, which fenced off vegetable gardens and orchards. Celandine, cleanliness, clean, clean - a direct indication of its ability to cleanse the body. How? This is indicated by other popular names for celandine - warthog, nipplewort... It has long been used celandine to get rid of warts, calluses, rashes, ulcers, lichen, acne.

Other names - yellow milkman, reddriver, will help you easily distinguish celandine from other plants. On high, softly pubescent stems, decorated with beautiful carved leaves, yellow four-petal celandine flowers bloom. The stem breaks easily at the nodes, the place of the break is covered with abundantly protruding, yellow-orange or bright orange juice. The alkaloids contained in the milk juice are those substances that help to cope with warts and other skin lesions.

Celandine is a perennial herb of 80-100 cm in height, with a short rhizome, of the poppy family (Papaveraceae). Stems are ribbed, leafy, branched. Leaves are spherical-pinnate. The flowers are yellow on rather long stalks, collected in simple umbrellas and located at the tops of stems and branches. Each flower consists of 4 petals about 1 cm long. The fruit is a pod-shaped capsule up to 5 cm long, the seeds are ovoid, 1-2 mm long, black-brown, glossy. Blooms from May to autumn. Fruiting from June to September.

It grows naturally in Europe and the Mediterranean, and is also common in America, where it was introduced in 1672 by the colonialists as a cure for skin diseases such as warts.

Naturalized throughout the world in the temperate zone.

The plant contains alkaloids: in the grass 0.97-1.87%, in the roots 1.9-4.14%. Among them are chelidonin, homohelidonin, chelerythrine, methoxychelidonin, oxiselidonin, sanguinarine, oxysanguinarine, protopin, allokryptonin, spartein, coptisine, helidamine, chelilyutin. The herb contains essential oil, ascorbic acid, vitamin A, organic acids - chelidonic, malic, citric, succinic. Milky sap is represented by resinous substances containing up to 40% fatty oil. The seeds contain 40-68% fatty oil, as well as lipase.


Blackberry care in the middle lane

There is an opinion that blackberries are a very demanding crop, which only professionals with a lot of free time can grow on their plots. It is a myth. It is really undesirable to ignore it. In the absence of regular pruning, dressing and other maintenance work, the shrub will bear much less fruit. Like the leaves, they will shrink from year to year. We will tell you about the basic rules for pruning, feeding and sheltering blackberries. They are completely uncomplicated and will help you grow strong, healthy shrubs with rich fruiting. How to choose a place for planting and which soil is preferable Blackberry prefers soils with a high calcium content, not rich in humus. Choose a sunny place for growing.

Blackberry pruning

This shrub will delight you with the most abundant harvests only if you take the time to prune. Moreover, this process cannot be called standard.

Remove strong thickening and shadows. Good airing of the crown will reduce the possibility of fungal diseases, and sufficient illumination will improve the process of photosynthesis and contribute to more active fruit filling.

  • Rejuvenate and strengthen the bush. A healthy and robust plant will require much less attention from the owner.
  • How to properly prune blackberries?

    There are many pruning methods and each is productive in its own way. Today we will analyze in detail one of them, aimed at obtaining a high-quality harvest. After all, you must admit that it is really pleasant to eat a large berry with a rich taste and aroma!

    Let's start with autumn pruning. It is produced during the period when the air temperature does not exceed + 5 ° С. To simplify the process of preparing a shrub for wintering, it is in the fall that we recommend cutting out damaged and old branches that bore fruit this or last year, if you have not pruned before. You need to leave only young shoots that have appeared from the ground in the current season (zero shoots). We need to perform several manipulations at once in the spring even before the buds swell.

    From the shoots left in the fall, select 5-8 of the strongest and most intact, on which fruit branches will form. Cut the rest to the root.

    We pinch the tips of the remaining shoots to stimulate the growth of second-order shoots (lateral). They will help us with uniform nutrition for all fruiting clusters.

    To avoid thickening of the crown, the lower part of the branches about 40 cm from the ground must be freed from lateral shoots. That is, as soon as they begin to appear from each sinus of our twig, pinch the lower ones, leaving only the upper side shoots for growth. When 4-6 internodes have formed on the left side shoots, their tips also need to be pinched. This amount of foliage will be enough to saturate the fruit twigs with nutrients, and the plant itself does not have to spend energy on maintaining and developing green mass. Thus, the berry will turn out to be of impressive size, with excellent taste and a high content of vitamins. This is where all the features of pruning blackberries end. It remains only to wait for the harvest to ripen and enjoy the fruits of your labors.

    Blackberry feeding

    As we already know, blackberries prefer calcium-rich soils with little humus. However, only the quality of the soil is not enough for a rich harvest, the plant needs regular feeding, which will help it grow quickly and correctly, bear fruit abundantly and tolerate climate changes, including winter, well. We offer the following scheme for feeding blackberries, which will help you reap a rich harvest:

      Once every 3-4 years, during the autumn digging under the bush, we bring in rotted manure, and during the spring one we add dolomite flour.

    In early spring, we apply complex fertilizer over the snow. For example, Azofosku. Spread 20-30 grams of fertilizer around the bush at a distance of 40-50 cm from the base.

    Until mid-July, we carry out foliar feeding with a composition containing boron and zinc in a chelated form. Boron Chelate, Helatin Boron or Florenta Boron (contain boron chelate). Zinc chelate, KompleMet (contain zinc chelate). Or Fulvochelate: this fertilizer contains not only these, but also other useful microelements in a chelated form.

  • In the first half of August, we add potassium nitrate (10 g per 10 l of water), and two weeks later - monopotassium phosphate (20 g per 10 l of water).
  • Preparing blackberries for winter

    Bush preparation

    Most varieties of blackberries have poor winter hardiness, so it is not recommended to leave shoots on the trellis in any case. Is it necessary to organize a bush shelter for the winter? Not at all. If you are growing a fairly winter-hardy variety, you can simply bend the branches remaining after the autumn pruning to the ground and pin. The function of the covering material will be performed by the snow cover.

    For capricious varieties, we still recommend using additional non-woven materials. In our zone, there is rarely a strong drop in temperature in the absence of snow, but if this happens, the bush will definitely not suffer under the shelter.

    Let's figure out the concept of winter hardiness for blackberries. We already know that flowering and fruiting occurs on a two-year-old shoot, and flower buds are laid in the fall in the first year of branch development. There is a snag in these kidneys. If the blackberry shoots themselves do not freeze even at -30 ° C (regardless of the variety), then the flower buds can freeze even at lower frosts. As a result, we will not lose the bush itself, but we risk being left without a crop. Therefore, read about how to cover a blackberry below.

    Shelter blackberries for the winter

    If you have decided to cover the bush, we recommend doing it in the following sequence. When outside the window is not higher than + 5 ° С, it's time to remove the branches from the support, make autumn pruning and bend the remaining shoots to the ground and fix them. If you wait for freezing temperatures, the wood will coarsen and when bending down, you can simply break the shoot. Blackberries usually do not shed their leaves for a very long time, so do not be scared by the fact that you will still be bending down leafy shoots. You do not need to pick off the leaves: they not only will not damage the shrub, but also serve as additional shelter. When the temperature drops to 0 ° С ... -5 ° С, we take the covering material 60-80 g / m² and cover both the shoots and the base of the bush in one layer. Temperatures are given as a guide only. If the variety is capricious and you plan to resort to using a spunbond, keep an eye on both the temperature and the snow cover. Due to premature shelter, the bush can be oppressed, but even if you wait for a stable snow cover, it will be very difficult to cover.

    Taking shelter in spring

    When stable temperatures above zero (+ 5 ° C ... + 8 ° C) are established outside, you can remove the covering material. If there is even a hint of freezing, postpone the opening of the blackberry: the bush may suffer from unexpected temperature changes. After removing the covering material, do not rush to straighten the shoots.Wait 2-3 weeks and then you can attach the branches to the supports or simply release them from the clamps. We are waiting so that possible return frosts do not damage the flower buds.


    Arrangement and planning of personal plots

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    The question of how to plan a summer cottage in order to relax and work on it is very relevant. This is not difficult if you are guided by some simple rules of zoning and landscape design.

    The essence of landscape design lies not in the abundance of plantings, but in the correct combination of plants and buildings

    General rules for site planning

    Planning begins with a drawing of the garden plot. The general view of such a scheme depends on the relief, shape, size of the space being designed. The easiest way is to organize the layout of a plot of 9 acres of the correct rectangular shape, especially if it is not too narrow. First you need to plan where and what will be located, to depict it in the drawing.

    The location of buildings, the layout of a garden and a vegetable garden depends on the area, shape and relief of the site.

    Modern styles of landscape design

    In the photo, the design and layout of the plots of country houses is usually a mixed style or an imitation of the English style. Less common are Mediterranean, hi-tech, Chinese and minimalistic.

    Regular style is characterized by geometric arrangement of objects and is best suited for areas with flat terrain

    Mixed style of territory decoration

    This design is the most budget-friendly option. Antique objects and brickwork, paths from wood cuts and sandy paths, a "rock garden" and a piece of coniferous forest, tall flower beds and light garden furniture are acceptable here.

    The mixed style is ideal for decorating an area where one part is flat and the other is embossed

    Designing a summer residence in the English style

    The English or landscape style suggests a romantic atmosphere and the absence of broken lines. Small slopes are left here, the paths are designed so that they look natural. Suitable colors are green, gray, silver-white. Vertical gardening and natural materials are encouraged.

    The English-style garden is often referred to as a "landscape classic"

    The first stage of planning is the conditional zoning of the site

    An approximate plan of the site, landscape design, looks like this:

    • living area with a house
    • garden with vegetable garden
    • place to rest.

    An example of zoning a suburban area

    When the site is large enough, additional space is allocated on it for the children's play area, ponds are dug, etc.

    Zoning is done with arches, "living" fences, decorative screens, garden figures, height difference, color and light.

    Residential

    Before dividing the site into zones, you should look at the photo on the Internet. The first is a residential area - this includes a house and a small adjacent area with flower beds. A path is laid from the front entrance to the exit from the site. In front of the territory there is a garage or carport.

    The main building on the site is a residential building. Subsequently, you cannot move it in one direction or another, therefore, when choosing a place for construction, the proverb “measure seven times, cut once” is correct.

    The garage can be separate or attached to the house. In any case, it is better to allocate a place for it closer to the roadway.

    Gardening

    The garden and vegetable garden are planned so that the trees do not shade the beds. It is desirable that this space is not visible from the side of the central entrance and does not spoil the general view of the cottage. The land here should be fertile, well moistened, but not waterlogged. If the territory is very small, the beds are arranged as if it were a flower bed, fenced off with borders.

    It is better to plant plants in the garden not in scattered groups, but to group them into attractive compositions.

    For the garden area, the most illuminated place on the site should be allocated

    Recreation area with barbecue or hearth

    This place is usually located in front of the house, it is decorated with a "hedge". In addition to the playground itself, with or without a canopy, there will be a children's area with swings and slides. Several recreation sites are made on the spacious territory - this is a zone next to the hearth, where they put a table, chairs, a space near a pond, a gazebo in the most secluded and green corner of the garden.

    The rest area should be hidden from prying eyes

    The place for children's games is made where it is most convenient for adults to look after the little ones.

    A place for a playground is usually chosen under the windows of the kitchen or living room.

    Economic

    There will be a bathhouse or shower room, a woodshed, a toilet, a shed for storing agricultural implements, aviaries or cages with animals, as well as places where the harvested crop is stored. The zone is partially or completely located in the "backyard", near the vegetable garden. It is separated by decorative hedges, plantings with climbing plants.

    The utility area is usually located behind the house and includes at least a tool shed.

    The bathhouse is located away from a residential building, both from one's own and from neighboring houses

    Small decorative structures, details

    Planning and decorating a garden area are integral attributes of landscape design. When the space is divided into zones, in addition to the vegetable garden, flower beds are broken here, alpine slides are poured, lighting devices are mounted, a pond is dug out.

    The appearance of the site becomes unique when soul is put into its design.

    Use the potential of climbing plants, which can be used to mask unsightly details, decorate a veranda or gazebo

    Site lighting - an element of landscape design

    Lighting devices are mounted along paths around the house, decorative lighting is placed near garden figures. Be sure to highlight the perimeter of the site, places with steps and just dangerous corners. It is necessary to lay the cable at the planning stage so as not to destroy what has already been done.

    First of all, it is necessary to think over the lighting of the main path leading from the gate to the front entrance of the house.

    You need to use energy-saving light bulbs that are well protected from water and dust. Decorative lamps "antique", glowing "stones", garden sculptures with built-in lighting, trees with illumination look good.

    Lighting of the recreation area with a garland suspended from the terrace ceiling

    The most convenient are "smart" lamps that turn on themselves when it gets dark, devices with motion and sound sensors.

    Artificial reservoirs in the local area

    The location of the reservoir is being considered at the planning stage. It should not be placed too close to the house, under trees, the leaves of which will fall into the water. To make it easier to care for the pond, it is located near a water source. The structure is made from an old bath or basin, concrete, stone, covered with PVC film, or a ready-made rubber object of a suitable shape is bought. The shores of the mini-lake are decorated with stones, living plants, it is permissible to equip a mini-waterfall.

    An artificial reservoir can be a separate decorative object or be part of a composition with an alpine slide

    The size of the pond depends on the area of ​​the site and the financial capabilities of the owners.

    Alpine slide

    Alpine is called artificial hills, consisting of large stones and numerous plants, mainly flowering. Rock gardens are made of various sizes, as a basis it is permissible to use construction waste, covered on top with a layer of fertile soil. The finished structure should be well visible and illuminated for most of the day. Large slides are formed by steps, and a seating area in the form of a gazebo is located at the top.

    With the help of an alpine slide, you can decorate any corner of the garden

    The stone composition should organically fit into the overall look of the garden plot

    Examples of the project of plots of different shapes

    A beautiful household plot layout arrangement design photo - this is a cottage immersed in greenery or standing in the middle of a neatly mowed lawn, a small house with a terrace or a space with a pond, gazebos. A narrow, long "piece of land" is more difficult to design. It is important to put the house so that it does not block the entire space, does not shade the garden and the neighbors' dacha. On the square, all the zones are located in different corners, and the inclined one is divided into "tiers" - on the top there will be a house, below the recreation area, then a vegetable garden.

    Square plot Narrow section Trapezoidal section

    Conclusion

    The layout of a summer cottage is a difficult but doable task. The general view of the site, the convenience of moving around it depends on the correctness of its implementation. You can beautifully equip the dacha yourself or by contacting landscape design specialists.

    Video: Site arrangement - where to start?

    Photo: The best design ideas for a suburban area


    Types and varieties

    Blackberries are divided based on external differences and growing conditions:

    1. Blackberry upright. Representatives are tall, up to 2 meters, stems are straight, covered with voluminous, sometimes curved thorns. Black glossy berries are shaped like a cylinder.
    2. Climbing blackberry (creeping). A semi-shrub with branches creeping along the surface of the earth, covered with tiny thorns. Climbing branches grow up to 5 meters long. Dark purple fruits are round or elongated.
    3. Transitional view. Representatives of the species have shoots that first grow vertically and then bend down to the ground.
    4. Blackberry without thorns. The studless blackberry is the result of human labor, the result of crossing. Modern breeders have developed varieties completely without thorns, with upright, creeping and semi-creeping branches, which certainly makes harvesting easier.

    Now more than 200 varieties of blackberries have been bred. Connoisseurs of aromatic berries choose those varieties of blackberries that suit them in all respects. In fact, the division of varieties is conditional, since the same variety can belong to several groups.

    Early blackberry

    Early kumanika is filled with juice in the first summer days. The berries ripen gradually, the duration of the harvest is 50 days. The disadvantage of the group is low resistance to frost. Among the early varieties there are prickly and thornless, erect and creeping blackberries.

    Natchez

    Semi-upright shoots, without thorns. One shrub yields up to 18 kg of large sugar berries. The plant can withstand frosts down to –15 ° С.

    Giant (Bedford Giant)

    A semi-shrub with climbing shoots, with thorns. The berries are strong, tasty, medium in size. Ripening period - July. Average frost resistance.

    Osage

    Bushes grow vertically, branches without thorns. Oval-rounded fruits of exquisite taste, medium size. The yield from one bush is up to 4 kg of fruits. Cannot withstand temperatures below –15 ° С.

    Karaka Black

    Early climbing kumanika with elongated sour-sugary berries. The size of the crop per bush is 15 kg of berries. Does not tolerate frost.

    Medium ripening varieties

    Representatives of this group delight with the harvest in the middle of summer. The taste of the berries depends a lot on weather conditions. If it rains outside, the fruits will be sour, if it is warm, they will be dry.

    Loch Ness

    An unpretentious semi-creeping variety with aromatic fruits. Shrub takes up little space, shoots without thorns. The harvest is solid, from one plant up to 30 kg of fruits.

    Loch Tay

    Representatives of the variety delight with sweet large berries with strong skin, which are not injured during transportation and are stored for a long time. The harvest is modest, from one bush - 12 kg of berries.

    Waldo

    A thornless, creeping bush takes up little space. Harvest from one copy - 17 kg of fruits.

    Late varieties

    Kumanik varieties, the fruits of which ripen late, are wonderful because the harvest is harvested closer to the beginning of autumn, when other berry crops no longer bear fruit.

    Navaho

    The branches of the representatives of the variety are straight, without thorns. The fruits are small and sour. Harvest from a bush - 15 kg of berries.

    Triple Crown

    This is a semi-creeping kumanik without thorns. Harvest - 10 kg of berries from a bush. The blackberry needs to be covered before frost.

    Chester (Chester Thornless)

    Representatives of the variety have semi-creeping bushes that take up little space, without thorns. The fruits are not large. Harvest from one bush - 20 kg of berries. The variety is adapted to a temperature drop down to –25 ° С.

    Thornfree

    Shoots of semi-spruce shrub are flexible, without thorns. Fruits with sourness, elongated shape. Harvest - 35 kg of berries from a bush.

    Doyle

    This new variety, with long, thornless shoots, is so far known only to a limited number of gardeners. Harvest from a bush - 25 kg of large fruits.

    Shade-tolerant varieties

    These varieties are able to adapt to any conditions. But lack of lighting and cloudy weather will make the fruits sour and smaller.

    Thornless Evergreen

    A bush with semi-creeping branches, without thorns. Representatives of the variety keep the leaves under the snow cover, and in the spring the culture develops rapidly.

    Agawam

    Shoots are straight, up to 3 m high. Yield from a bush - 10 kg of medium-sized berries. Blackberries do not need to be covered for the winter. The negative aspect of the variety is the numerous root growth, which causes inconvenience to gardeners.

    Frost-resistant blackberry

    Erect and transitional species of kumanik tolerate low temperatures better than creeping ones.

    Abundant (Copiosa)

    The shrub occupies a small space, there are no root suckers. Branches are semi-creeping, with thorns. Tart fruits of an oblong shape.

    Polar

    A variety with long, strong shoots without thorns. The fruits are large. Harvest from a bush - 6 kg of berries. Representatives of the variety can withstand temperatures down to –30 ° С.

    Arapaho

    Shrub shoots without thorns. The berries contain a lot of juice and are shaped like a cone. Blackberries tolerate temperatures down to –25 ° C.

    Apaches (Apache)

    A shrub with strong branches, without thorns. The berries are voluminous, sweet, well stored, resemble an elongated cylinder in shape.

    Darrow

    Shoots with thorns. Harvest of tart berries from one bush - up to 10 kg. The variety tolerates frosts down to -35 ° С.

    Repaired varieties

    Repaired blackberry bears fruit twice a season. The first time is in June-July, the second is closer to September.

    The famous variety is Reuben. A voluminous shrub with thorns. The fruits are large. Blackberries cannot stand the heat, more than + 30 ° С, and the temperature drop is less than -16 ° С.


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